Active Ingredients per 4-gram Chew:
Glucosamine Sulfate (as Glucosamine Sulfate Potassium Chloride Complex) - 225 mg.
Glucosamine sulfate is one of the best-known and safest ingredients for promoting joint health. It is a precursor of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate, an essential component of the cartilage matrix. Considerable animal research indicates glucosamine sulfate's effectiveness in maintaining joint health.
Vitamin C - 100 mg.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) enhances collagen formation and cartilage growth. Ascorbic acid has been shown to help maintain healthy cartilage.
DL-Phenylalanine - 75 mg.
DL-Phenylalanine (DLPA) is a component of the catecholamine neurotransmitter cascade, which can in turn increase levels of endorphins and enkephalins.
Curcumin Phytosome - 50 mg.
Curcumin is the orange pigment found in turmeric and is a potent antioxidant. Studies have show that curcumin helps reduce inflammation and accompanying pain and also protects the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys from damage.
Chondroitin Sulfate (Bovine) - 50 mg.
Chondroitin is a natural component of cartilage. Numerous studies have demonstrated that oral supplementation with chondroitin has shown significant clinical benefits to joint health.
MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) - 50 mg
The sulfur in MSM can be utilized by the body in the formation of compounds such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, as well as the amino acids methionine and cysteine. Arthritic joints often have low levels of both sulfur and cysteine. Animal studies have found MSM helps to strengthen the tissues that make up the joints.
Boswellia Serrata extract - 35 mg.
Boswellia serrata extract, also known as Indian Frankincense, has been demonstrated in animal and human clinical studies to benefit joint structures and reduce inflammation.
Bromelain - 35 mg.
Bromelain is a enzyme found in pineapples and helps to reduce swelling and inflammation.
Hyaluronic Acid - 10 mg.
Hyaluronic acid is a normal component of cartilage and joint structures and has been shown to be a "chondroprotectant" - a substance that protects cartilage from damage.
Inactive ingredients: Arabic gum, buffered white distilled vinegar, chick pea flour, chicory root, citric acid, coconut glycerin, coconut oil, guar gum, natural hickory smoke flavor, rosemary extract, sunflower lecithin, sunflower oil, tapioca starch.